However, after using the solutions students can comprehend the subject in a bit easy manner where each topic is described by the subject experts. Furthermore, the experts have used the syllabus to prepare the answers so that learners can have access to the best NCERT Solutions. Here we have compiled them in a PDF and provided them to allow students to download and prepare for the board and competitive exams.
In the complete 16 chapters of class 12th biology the topics that are discussed are reproduction, evolution, Health and Diseases, Biotechnology and more. Along with the explanation of topics, it contains the chapter end exercises that are important to solve and practice. However, due to the confusion in the topics, answering the questions can be a bit difficult that is why here we have provided the chapter wise NCERT Biology solutions PDF for Class 12th.
Reproduction is a very crucial part of the biological process, in organisms, reproduction is done in two ways asexual or sexual. In asexual reproduction, fusion of gametes or changes in the number of chromosomes does not take place, while in sexual reproduction the fusion of gametes combines with one another to produce a zygote. These topics are explained in the first chapter of biology with the help of images and suitable examples.
Morphology, structure and the processes of sexual reproduction in flowering plants are taught in this chapter where students are given the opportunity to understand how there is so much variations in flowers, and how their sexual reproduction impacts our life. Topics that are discussed in this chapter is development of male and female gametophytes; pollination, Post-fertilisation: Structures and Events, Apomixis and Polyembryony, etc.
Human reproduction is take place through sexual intercourse where the male semen fertlizes the female egg. In humans there is a certain age when each individual reach to the sexual maturaity. In order to understand human reproduction it is crucial to give attention to the Male Reproductive System and the Female Reproductive System. This chapter has explained them in quite detail as well as the importance of sex hormones too.
The discussion of reproductive health is important and it has been discussed in chapter 4 where the subject experts have explained why healthy reproductive organs with normal functions are important. Reproductive Health – Problems and Strategies, Population Explosion and Birth Control, Medical Termination of Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Infertility has been eleborted in detail in class 12th chapter 4 Biology.
In Principles of Inheritance and Variation chapter 5 the genetics topics have been illustrated in detail so that you can learn why a dog gives birth to a puppy not an elephant. This can be understood by studying inheritance and variation or genetics. The genetics are involved in passing the character of parent to progeny. This can be a complex topic to understand but the NCERT Textbook has elaborated it in quite detail and in an interesting manner. Mendel”s law of inheritance, the inheritance of one gene, two genes, sex determination and such more topics are elaborated throughout this chapter.
Chapter 6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance is an extended topic of Inheritance and variation. You have already learned about the Genetics in the previous chapter but the idea of inheritance pattern was not clear at the time of Mendel. However, after hundreds of years one putative was investigated that states that DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material that at least exists in almost all living organisms.
In this chapter, structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication, and more have been discussed.
Evolution is one of the most interesting and curious topics for students. In chapter 7 of class 12th biology, the topics have been explained to inform students about the origin of life, how revolution took place, what are the proof of those revolutions and more. The experts have tried to explain the theoretical aspects as well as some other evidentiary aspects of the origin of life. Go through this chapter to learn about the interesting facts and events of evolution.
Modern science defines health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. However, earlier, it was defined as a state of body and mind where there was a balance of a certain state of mind. This chapter helps you to learn about the Common Diseases in Humans, Immunity, AIDS, Cancer, Drugs, and more so that you can have awareness of proper health and diseases. Go through this chapter to understand this thing in detail.
Animal Husbandry, Plant Breeding, Single Cell Proteins, Tissue Culture are the possible methods through which we can produce more food as per the need. Several new biological techniques have given us the capability to enhance the food production for the ever -increasing population of the world. Animal husbandry, management of farms and farm animals, dairy farm management, poultry farm management, plant breeding, and more subtopics have been explained in this chapter.
Macroscopic plants are very visible to our eyes and that is why we discuss them very often. However, in the biological system the microbes are very important components rather it has played a crucial role in the evolution of the planet earth. The microbes are present everywhere even deep inside the geysers where the existence of life is very rare. In nature there are various kinds of microbes which are very dangerous for use and there are a lot of microbes too that are harmless for us. Microbes in Household Products, Industrial Products, Sewage Treatment, Production of Biogas, etc. have been explained in this chapter.
In Biotechnology there are certain techniques which we can learn to use live organisms or enzymes from organisms to produce products that are useful for humans. Developing DNA vaccines, ‘test-tube’ babies, synthesising a gene and using it are some of the examples of techniques that are used under biotechnology. Topics covered in this chapter are very interesting and students must study them. Refer to the Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions to solve the questions based on biotechnology.
Through this chapter, you will be able to learn about the applications of biotechnology that include therapeutics, diagnostics, genetically modified crops for agriculture, processed food, waste treatment, and energy production. You will also learn how the application of biotechnology has improved our life and it is still improving.
Ecology is basically distributed into four levels of biological organisation. Those organisations are organisms, populations, communities and biomes. In chapter 13 you will explore ecology at organismic and population levels. Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions – mutualism, competition, etc have been discussed in this chapter.
Ecosystem - a structure in which the living organisms interact among themselves and also with the physical environment of the surrounding. Size of an ecosystem can vary from a pond to a large forest. Since the ecosystem topic is quite complex and huge the professionals have divided it into two - terrestrial and aquatic. In this chapter you will learn about productivity, Energy flow, composition and more.
There is a huge diversity in living organisms on this planet earth. Even if aliens visit this planet then they would be amazed by looking at the diversity of life here. There is a variety of diversity here; a few of them are Genetic diversity, Species diversity, Ecological diversity, etc. Chapter 15 includes various topics and subtopics on Biodiversity and its Conservation, a few of them are Patterns of Biodiversity, the importance of Species Diversity to the Ecosystem, and more.
The enormous increase in the population has increased the demand for food, water, home, electricity, roads and more that is eventually giving a very high pressure on our natural resources which is also contributing to pollution of air, water and soil. Pollutions are those which are undesirable changes in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air, land, water or soil. Air Pollution and Its Control, Water Pollution and Its Control, Solid Wastes, Radioactive Wastes, Deforestation, and more such topics have been covered in this chapter.
NCERT Class 12th Biology solutions enable you to gain extensive coverage of the fundamental concepts. It is the best resource for the CBSE Board exam preparation and to practice a plethora of questions with ease. Biology solutions enable you to have a good control over the biological terms that are explained in a total of 16 chapters.